Computer-assisted (or aided) qualitative data analysis software (CAQDAS)

Computer-assisted (or aidedqualitative data analysis software (CAQDAS) offers tools that assist with qualitative research such as transcription analysis, coding and text interpretation, recursive abstraction, content analysis, discourse analysis,[1] grounded theory methodology, etc.

CAQDAS is used in psychology, marketing research, ethnography, public health and other social sciences. The CAQDAS networking project[2] lists the following tools a CAQDAS program should have:

  • Content searching tools
  • Coding tools
  • Linking tools
  • Mapping or networking tools
  • Query tools
  • Writing and annotation tools

Comparison of CAQDAS software

ApplicationTypeLicenseSourceLast ReleaseAnalysesOS SupportedTools
AquadClientFree – GPLOpen2017-02Text, Audio, Video, GraphicsWindowsCoding, Sequence Analysis, Exploratory Data Analysis
ATLAS.tiClientProprietaryClosed2019-03Text, Audio, Video, Graphic, Social NetworksWindows, macOS, iOS, Android, Cloud (web-based)Coding, Aggregation, Query, Visualisation
CassandreWeb-based/serverFree – GPLOpen2018-10-09TextAll (java-based)Coding
CLANClientFree – GPLOpen2019-06-10TextWindows, macOS, LinuxCoding
Coding Analysis Toolkit (CAT)Web-basedFree – GPLOpen2014-06-28[3]TextAll (web browser)Coding
Compendium/CompendiumNG[4]ClientFree – LGPLOpen2014-02TextAll (java-based)Coding
DedooseWeb-basedProprietaryClosed2016-12Text, Audio, VideoAll (web browser)Coding, Query, Visualisation, Statistical Tools
ELANClientFree – GPLOpen2018-12-12[5]Audio, VideoWindows, macOS, LinuxCoding
KH CoderClientFree- GPLOpen2015-12-29[6]TextWindows, macOS, Linux
LeximancerWeb-based/ClientProprietaryClosed2019-01-31TextWindows,macOSCoding, Visualisation, Context not keyword
MAXQDAClientProprietaryClosed2019-02-05Text, audio, video, pictures, webpages, social networksWindows, macOSCoding, Aggregation, Query, Visualisation, Statistical Tools
NVivoClientProprietaryClosed2017-02Text, audio, video, pictures, webpagesWindows, macOSCoding, Aggregation, Query, Visualisation
QDA MinerClientProprietaryClosed2016-11Windows
QDA Miner LiteClientProprietaryClosed2017-01-12TextWindowsCoding
QiqqaClientProprietaryClosed2016-09Windows, Android
Quantitative Discourse Analysis Package (qdap) (R package)ClientFree- GPLOpen2019-01-02[7]TextWindows, macOS, LinuxWord extracting, statistical analysis, visualization
QuirkosClientProprietaryClosed2020-02[8]TextWindows, macOS, Linux,[9] AndroidCoding, Query, Visualisation
RQDA (R package)ClientFree- GPLOpen2018-03[10]TextWindows, macOS, LinuxCoding, Aggregation, Query, Visualisation
TransanaClientProprietary, used to be GPL[11]Closed2017-11[12]Text, Audio, VideoWindows, macOSCoding
XSightClientProprietaryClosed2006 (abandoned)Windows

Project Exchange Format

In March 2019 the Rotterdam Exchange Format Initiative (REFI) launched a new open exchange standard for qualitative data called QDA-XML.[13] The aim is to allow users to bring coded qualitative data from one software package to another. Initially support was included in Atlas.ti, QDA Miner, Quirkos and Transana, with implementation pledged from Dedoose, MAXQDA and NVivo.[14] Although this was not the first standard to be proposed, it was the first to be implemented by more than one software package, and came as the result of a collaboration between vendors and community representatives from the research community. Previously there was very little capability to bring data in from other software packages.

Pros and cons

Such software helps to organize, manage and analyse information.[15] The advantages of using this software include saving time, managing huge amounts of qualitative data, having increased flexibility, having improved validity and auditability of qualitative research, and being freed from manual and clerical tasks. Concerns include increasingly deterministic and rigid processes, privileging of coding, and retrieval methods; reification of data, increased pressure on researchers to focus on volume and breadth rather than on depth and meaning, time and energy spent learning to use computer packages, increased commercialism, and distraction from the real work of analysis.[16]

See also


  1. ^ Paulus, Trena M.; Lester, Jessica Nina (2016). “ATLAS.ti for conversation and discourse analysis studies”. International Journal of Social Research Methodology19 (4): 405–428. doi:10.1080/13645579.2015.1021949.
  2. ^ “CAQDAS”. Retrieved 28 November 2011.
  3. ^
  4. ^ “CompendiumNG website”. Retrieved 22 February 2017.
  5. ^ “ELAN Release Notes – The Language Archive” Retrieved 2019-03-27.
  6. ^ “KH Coder download site”. Retrieved 11 March 2017.
  7. ^ “qdap GitHub website”. Retrieved 18 February 2017.
  8. ^ “Quirkos 2.3 with live team work is now here”. Retrieved 5 March 2020.
  9. ^ “Quirkos for Linux”. Retrieved 11 September 2015.
  10. ^
  11. ^ “Transana website”. Retrieved 2 February 2016.
  12. ^ “Transana website”. Retrieved 19 May 2017.
  13. ^ “Launch – Codebook Exchange”. Retrieved 19 March 2019.
  14. ^ “Products – Project Exchange”. Retrieved 19 March 2019.
  15. ^ Banner, DJ; Albarrran, JW (2009). “Computer-assisted qualitative data analysis software: a review”. Canadian Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing19 (3): 24–31. PMID 19694114.
  16. ^ St John, W; Johnson, P (2000). “The pros and cons of data analysis software for qualitative research”. Journal of Nursing Scholarship32 (4): 393–7. PMID 11140204.

External links

Categorie:A11- TAL- Trattamento automatico del linguaggio, B01- Semiotica visiva, Z05- Riconoscimento misivo


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